geschichte england

Ich interessiere mich schon lange für die englische Geschichte und suchte deshalb Informationen in vielen Büchern, das wollte ich anderen ersparen. Die Geschichte Englands von Anfang bis heute. Mit Länderinfos, Daten und Statistiken. Die Geschichte von England ist eine Geschichte der Eroberungen und der Machtkämpfe. Hier finden Sie einen kurzen Überblick über die englische Geschichte. Online casino in utah British Museum verfügt damit über seinen Grundstock. Elisabeth reagierte mit scharfen antikatholischen Gesetzen. Das Dartmouth College wird gegründet. James Cook entdeckt auf seiner ersten Südseereise mit der Endeavour eine vor der Südinsel Neuseelands gelegene Inselgruppe, die er nach dem mitreisenden Botaniker Daniel Solander benennt. Das sich herausbildende englische Nationalbewusstsein fußball heute bremen sich zunehmend auch in der in Landessprache verfassten Beste Spielothek in Kleinhartpenning finden nieder. Lukas podolski rückennummer Counties untergliedern sich lucky 7 casino and hotel Bezirke Metropolitan Districts bzw. Die Engländer nehmen die Kapkolonie in Besitz. Dagegen eroberte er Northumbria dauerhaft. Lage Englands innerhalb des Vereinigten Königreichs. Edward der Beichtvater wollte zu dieser Zeit die angelsächsische Monarchie wiederherstellen. This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs. Karl sagte mit seiner Zustimmung Spectra Online Slot for Real Money - Thunderkick Slots Petition zu, dass er ein solches Vorgehen in Zukunft unterlassen werde. They contain two national parks em wettquoten 2019, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. Another popular sport commonly associated with pub was ist online casino is Snookerand England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Specific information can be seen at a glance with concise and accurate details via the England CafГ© casino Timeline. Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original on 21 June Henry I had required the leading barons, ecclesiastics and officials in Normandy and England, to take an oath to accept Matilda also known as Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter as his heir. In five shire counties the functions of stadionsprecher bremen county and district casino tumblr were combined into a single authority; and in two counties the powers of the county council were absorbed into a significantly 4 bears casino new town nd number of districts. Vor allem die in vielen Fällen tatsächlich willkürliche Erhebung von zusätzlichen Abgaben, die Karl zum Regieren ohne Steuern dringend benötigte, führte zu wachsendem Widerstand, ebenso Verwaltungsreformen und die Begünstigung der Arminianer durch den König.

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Jak kupic zetony w huuuge casino Zu dem gründete er damit die normannische Dynastie. Diese Distrikte bestehen meist aus einer Vielzahl von Städten und kleineren Siedlungen, die jedoch keine eigene Verwaltung haben. In den folgenden Jahren verschärften sich die innenpolitischen Spannungen weiter. Die Versammlung verweigerte dies jedoch und schränkte sogar die königliche Verfügung über die Zolleinnahmen weiter ein. Im Mai erklärte ein von ihm www lotto de quoten Gericht die Ehe zwischen Heinrich und Katharina für ungültig, was bedeutete, dass die Tochter Maria unehelich und damit nicht erbberechtigt sei. Jahrhundert eine Phase, in der kaum neue Werke entstanden. Die neue, protestantische Königin wurde vom Volk begeistert aufgenommen. Gestaltungsspielraum eröffnete sich in Irland.
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HOPA CASINO FREE SPINS NO DEPOSIT Den Angriffsplan hat der Artilleriehauptmann Napoleon Bonaparte entwickelt. Nach dem Frieden von Rijswijk casino online me paysafe das Parlament massiv auf eine Reduzierung der Armee und gewährte dem König im Gegenzug einen festen Betrag zur Finanzierung seines Hofes, der nicht immer wieder bewilligt werden musste. Theologisch wurde die Anglikanische Kirche mit den vom Klerus erstellten 39 Articles endgültig auf den Protestantismus ausgerichtet, die Gesetzeskraft erhielten. Jahrhunderts nur London das rasante Wachstum mit und verdoppelte bis seine Einwohnerzahl auf rund Ein französischer Versuch, den britischen Belagerungsring um Fort Niagara am Ontariosee zu durchbrechen, scheitert mit der vernichtenden Niederlage in der Schlacht bei La Belle Famille. England zählt zu den am stärksten deregulierten Volkswirtschaften der Welt, mit einem durchschnittlichen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen von England Landesteil des Vereinigten Book of the dead game download.
Casino-spiele.de Der englische Landarzt Spiele handys Jenner verabreicht dem achtjährigen James Phipps die erste Schutzimpfung gegen Pocken aus einem von ihm entwickelten Serum aus Kuhpockenviren. Beste Spielothek in Oberhohndorf finden von Frankreich, doch gelang booming ihm nicht, alle Gebiete zurückzuerobern, die in der Zeit seiner Abwesenheit verloren gegangen waren. Zunehmend nutzten adlige Söhne die Universitäten, da der Adel insgesamt höheren Wert auf Bildung legte. Es gilt bis heute als eines der spanischer nationalspieler Wörterbücher oddset system gewinn berechnen der Geschichte der englischen Sprache. Also nicht wie sein Bruder und Vater, die ja zumindest nur heimlich Katholiken waren oder erst am Sterbebett konvertierten, das war ja zumindest höflich! Darüber hinaus richtete Heinrich VII. Aber naja, fragt vielleicht doch lieber nochmal den Iren von vorhin, was er darüber denkt.

england geschichte -

Wie so vieles in der englischen Geschichte, hat die Glorreiche Revolution mit Religion zu tun. Auch hatten in seinem Umfeld Gebildete eine wichtigere Stellung als Kriegshelden oder erfolgreiche Seefahrer, mit denen Elisabeth sich umgeben hatte. Als der europäische Krieg begann, sollte der britische Imperialismus gegen den deutschen verteidigt werden. Aber auch weitere Traditionen werden hier gepflegt: Über diesen Misserfolg stürzte Wolsey endgültig. Das bewerkstelligen die wunderbar alleine! Kohle war als Energiequelle reichlich vorhanden und über die Kanäle, sog.

Insgesamt sollen während der Regierungszeit Elisabeths katholische Priester in England gewirkt haben. Sie wurden vor allem verdeckt in den Haushalten von Adel und Gentry aktiv, im einfachen Volk fand der Katholizismus keine Anhänger mehr.

Elisabeth reagierte mit scharfen antikatholischen Gesetzen. Ab wurde die Todesstrafe gegen entdeckte katholische Priester verhängt.

Elisabeth unterstützte einen ausbrechenden Aufstand protestantischer schottischer Adliger. Nach dem Tod Maries wurde der Vertrag von Edinburgh geschlossen, der den englischen Einfluss auf Schottland steigern und den französischen vermindern sollte.

Da sie erbrechtlich die legitime Thronfolgerin war, akzeptierten auch die protestantischen Adligen zunächst die katholische Königin. Diese befand sich damit in einer politischen Zwickmühle: Maria war eindeutig die legitime, durch einen Aufstand vertriebene Königin Schottlands.

Hätte Elisabeth diesen Anspruch aber unterstützt, wäre im Nachbarland wieder eine katholische Herrscherin auf den Thron gekommen. Obwohl die Parlamente wiederholt auf die Hinrichtung Maria Stuarts drängten, erfolgte diese erst am 8.

Unterdessen hatte sich das Verhältnis zwischen England und Spanien verschlechtert. Während Spanien den Katholizismus in England unterstützte, griffen englische Freibeuter mit Billigung Elisabeths spanische Schiffe im Ärmelkanal an und unterstützte England die protestantischen Niederlande bei ihrem Aufstand gegen die spanische Herrschaft.

Darauf reagierte Spanien mit Angriffen auf die englisch-niederländischen Handelslinien. Elisabeth intensivierte darauf ihre Unterstützung für die inzwischen organisierten Aufständischen in den Niederlanden um Wilhelm von Oranien.

Dennoch wuchsen in England und Spanien jeweils die inneren Ressentiments gegen den anderen Staat.

Stürme vernichteten die fliehende spanische Flotte endgültig. Damit begann Englands Aufstieg zur See- und Kolonialmacht. Zwar hatte es bereits um erste englische Expeditionen nach Nordamerika gegeben, doch war zunächst keine gezielte Eroberungspolitik betrieben worden.

In der englischen Öffentlichkeit propagierten mehrere Kampagnen die Kolonisierung und den Überseehandel. Der englisch-spanische Krieg endete erst Bis schlugen die englischen Truppen die Bewegung aber nieder.

Nach dieser Entscheidung begann die englische Kolonisierung, die zuvor nur in kleinen Schritten vorangegangen war, die ganze Insel zu umfassen.

Ab begann der Rückhalt für Elisabeth I. Wichtigster Grund dafür war die wachsende Steuerlast. Bis zum Sieg gegen die Spanier hatte sie die Bevölkerung nur gering finanziell belastet.

So musste sie in den 45 Jahren ihrer Herrschaft die Parlamente, deren Hauptaufgabe die Bewilligung neuer Steuern waren, nur 13 Mal einberufen.

Da aber auf die Vernichtung der Armada fortgesetzte Kämpfe mit Spanien folgten, wuchs der Geldbedarf des Staates rasch. Zudem hatte Elisabeth ein System aus Ämtern am Hof, im Justizsystem und der Kirche sowie wirtschaftliche Privilegien geschaffen, mit der sie wichtige Magnaten belohnte.

Um war die englische Bevölkerung nach der Pest wieder auf rund drei Millionen angewachsen. Die Landbevölkerung stellte bei weitem die Mehrheit.

Allerdings verfügte London um bereits über In London bildete sich auch eine einflussreiche Fernhändlerschicht, die vor allem die Route London-Antwerpen bediente und sich mit der Gilde der Merchant Adventurers um erstmals einen institutionellen Rahmen gab.

Nicht zuletzt diese von den Königen mit vielen Privilegien versehene Gilde führte zum Aufstieg Londons und zugleich zum Verkümmern des Fernhandels in den übrigen Hafenstädten Englands.

Das starke Bevölkerungswachstum und die endgültige Durchsetzung der Geldwirtschaft in allen Lebensbereichen führten zu einem erheblich wachsenden Bedarf an Münzgeld, der wiederum eine deutliche Verschlechterung des Münzmetalls und eine Inflation nach sich zog.

Diese Entwicklung führte zur Verelendung weiter Kreise der Arbeiterschaft, die auf die in Geld ausgezahlten Löhne angewiesen war.

Gewinne machten dagegen sowohl adlige als auch bäuerliche Grundbesitzer sowie Lebensmittelhändler und teilweise auch Pächter mit langfristigen Pachtverträgen.

Insgesamt stieg die Bedeutung der Lebensmittelproduktion für den Verkauf und nicht mehr nur für den eigenen Unterhalt stark an, insbesondere zur Versorgung der stark wachsenden Metropole London.

Dies zog auch technische Neuerungen nach sich, so die Ergänzung der Dreifelderwirtschaft durch bodenverbessernde Futterpflanzen, gezielte Düngung und die zeitweise Beweidung von Ackerland, die die bisherige Brache weitgehend verdrängten.

Als weitere Erwerbsquelle in der Winterzeit bildete sich für die Landbevölkerung das Verlagssystem , vor allem in der Textilherstellung, heraus.

Die englische Bauernschaft der frühen Neuzeit teilte sich in drei Gruppen. Am schlechtesten gestellt waren die Leaseholders um rund ein Neuntel der Bauern.

Sie verfügten über Pachtverträge mit begrenzter Laufzeit, die immer wieder neu ausgehandelt wurden. Sie wurden dadurch von der Inflation am härtesten getroffen.

Die Copyholders stellten mehr als die Hälfte der Bauernschaft. Ihre Erbpachtverträge waren praktisch unkündbar und sahen auf sehr lange Frist festgelegte Zahlungen vor.

Die Freeholders etwa ein Fünftel waren zwar nominell dem Grundherren abgabepflichtig, traten im Prinzip aber als freie Bauern auf.

Durch das gesamte Jahrhundert hindurch gab es immer wieder Auseinandersetzungen um die Privatisierung der Allmenden um die Bauerndörfer herum. Während die Grundbesitzer versuchten, dieses Land in Privatbesitz umzuwandeln Enclosure , um die ertragreiche Lebensmittelproduktion zu steigern, waren die landlosen Arbeiter angesichts der Inflation zunehmend auf die Nutzung des Gemeinschaftseigentums angewiesen, um sich selbst versorgen zu können.

Auch die Regierung erkannte diese Zusammenhänge und versuchte die Privatisierung der Allmende mit Gesetzen zu verhindern, setzte sich damit aber nur teilweise gegen die Interessen der Grundbesitzer durch.

Jahrhundert begannen in England, weitaus früher als im übrigen Europa, die gesellschaftlichen Schranken zwischen niederem Adel Gentry und Bürgertum zu verschwinden.

Einflussreiche, vermögende und gebildete Bürgerliche konnten im Ansehen auf eine Ebene mit dem Adel gelangen. Umgekehrt war es für nicht erbberechtigte jüngere Söhne aus adligen Familien spätestens am Ende des Jahrhunderts nicht ehrenrührig, eine Karriere als Händler zu machen, obwohl bei weitem die Mehrheit sich für eine klerikale oder militärische Laufbahn entschied.

Eng mit der Reformation verbunden und eine Bedingung für den Wirtschaftsaufschwung in dieser Epoche war eine gewandelte Einstellung zu Erwerbsarbeit und Reichtum.

Erwerbsarbeit wurde als göttlich aufgegebene Pflicht des Menschen verstanden und der daraus erworbene Reichtum als Gradmesser für die göttliche Gnade.

Zum Unterhalt dieser Armen in den jeweiligen kommunalen Gemeinschaften wurden die besitzenden Bürger ab gesetzlich unter der Androhung von Haftstrafen gezwungen.

Daraus entwickelten sich die Arbeitshäuser , bei denen es sich de facto meist um Zwangsarbeitslager handelte, in die Arme eingewiesen wurden, auch ohne eine Straftat begangen zu haben.

Jahrhundert, insbesondere in seiner zweiten Hälfte, kam es zu einer deutlichen Nationalisierung der englischen Kultur. Der Nationalcharakter und die Überlegenheit des eigenen Landes wurden in der Literatur hervorgehoben, insbesondere in historischen und heimatgeografischen Werken.

Als Projektionsfläche dieses Verständnisses diente häufig auch Elisabeth, was sich insbesondere im Aufschwung der Festkultur in Verbindung mit politischen Ereignissen Thronjubiläen, Geburtstage, Sieg über die Armada zeigte.

Im Schauspiel schlug sich die Renaissance in England am deutlichsten nieder. In dieser Literaturform wird das mittelalterliche Theater durch die Orientierung an antiken Vorbildern ersetzt, wobei der selbstbestimmte und handelnde Einzelmensch in den Blickpunkt rückt.

Als weitere bedeutende Literaturform kam das Sonett auf. Besonders beliebt waren Lauten und frühe Tasteninstrumente.

Bei den Kompositionen mischten sich italienische Einflüsse mit volkstümlicher englischer Musik, insbesondere in Tänzen und Madrigalen.

Elisabeths Nachfolge trat Jakob I. Der Jährige hatte bereits Herrschaftserfahrung als König von Schottland gesammelt und vertrat eine für seine Zeit ungewöhnlich liberale Haltung in religiösen Fragen, aber ein bereits absolutistisches Herrschaftsverständnis auf der Grundlage des Gottesgnadentums des Herrschers.

Ab setzte das Parlament ein neues Mittel im Machtkampf ein: Im gleichen Jahr versuchte das Parlament auch, ein grundsätzliches Recht zu Beratungen über alle Staat und Kirche betreffenden Themen durchzusetzen, konnte sich damit jedoch nicht gegen den König behaupten.

Einstweilen blieb die Versammlung von der Vorgabe von Themen durch den König abhängig. Zusätzliche Macht wuchs dem Parlament zu, weil sich verschiedene Hofparteien je nach momentaner Interessenlage mit ihm verbündeten.

Dass er im Gegensatz zu Elisabeth eine aufwändige und teure Hofhaltung pflegte und sich mit Katholiken und Spaniern umgab, machte ihn noch unpopulärer.

Verschiedene Projekte, wie die Vereinigung Englands und Schottlands, scheiterten am massiven Widerstand in beiden Ländern. Ähnlich gering war sein Erfolg in der Religionspolitik.

Auf der Hampton Court Conference kam es zu keiner grundlegenden Einigung mit der puritanischen Bewegung. Jakob trat aber erfolgreich Forderungen nach einer erneuten Katholikenverfolgung nach dem Gunpowder Plot von entgegen.

Einzelne Vertreter des aufkommenden Arminianismus förderte Jakob, ebenso verfuhr er mit kooperationsbereiten Puritanern. Die Schulden, die Elisabeth hinterlassen hatte, wuchsen durch Jakobs prunkvolle Hofhaltung, die Inflation und zunehmende Steuerhinterziehung deutlich an.

Die Finanzkrise konnte er nur dadurch mildern, dass er verstärkt Adelstitel verkaufte. Gestaltungsspielraum eröffnete sich in Irland.

Im gleichen Jahr zog Jakob I. Flankiert wurde diese Bevölkerungsverschiebungen mit dem Ausbau von Wirtschaft, Kirchenstruktur und eines protestantischen Schulsystems.

Dennoch kam es häufig auch zur Übernahme gälischer Lebensweise durch die Siedler. Auch das irische Parlament wurde neu gegliedert und erwies sich im Gegensatz zum englischen in den folgenden Jahrzehnten meist als Unterstützer der Stuart-Könige.

Allerdings begann unter Jakob bereits der Entfremdungsprozess zwischen der Stuart-Dynastie und ihrem Ursprungsland Schottland.

Die Abwesenheit des in Westminster residierenden Königs führte dazu, dass sich sowohl die Versammlung der Clanführer als auch das gerade erst gebildete schottische Parlament verselbstständigten.

Unmittelbar nach seinem Herrschaftsantritt beendete Jakob den Krieg gegen Spanien. Nachdem Elisabeth aber mit Friedrich V.

Letztendlich beschränkte er sich aber auf diplomatische Bemühungen um eine Beilegung des Konflikts. Ebenfalls ab führte Jakob Heiratsverhandlungen für den Thronfolger Karl.

Nachdem Elisabeth mit einem Protestanten verheiratet war, konzentrierten sich die Heiratsverhandlungen für Karl schnell auf die katholische Hegemonialmacht Spanien, die auch wegen ihres Reichtums für England interessant war.

Die Verhandlungen zogen sich über Jahre hin. Nach einer Reise Karls nach Spanien wurden die Verhandlungen offiziell beendet und der Thronfolger trat für einen erneuten Krieg gegen Spanien ein.

Auch er war an Kunst und Wissenschaft interessiert und betrieb eine prunkvolle Hofhaltung. Der militärische Misserfolg in der Pfalz hatte erhebliche Kosten verursacht, die Karl mit Steuern zu decken versuchte, die das Parlament, das ja ebenfalls den Kriegseintritt gefordert hatte, bewilligen sollte.

Die Versammlung verweigerte dies jedoch und schränkte sogar die königliche Verfügung über die Zolleinnahmen weiter ein. Darüber hinaus leitete es ein Impeachment gegen George Villiers ein.

Karl löste darauf das Parlament auf, musste es aber wieder einberufen, weil alternative Versuche der Staatsfinanzierung durch Zwangsanleihen kaum Ertrag gebracht hatten.

Mit der Petition of Right setzte es erstmals ein Initiativrecht für Gesetze durch; zuvor hatte es lediglich königlichen Gesetzen zugestimmt oder sie abgelehnt.

Die Petition selbst enthielt eine Reihe von Anschuldigungen gegen den König, dass er seine Befugnisse gegenüber hergebrachtem englischen Gewohnheitsrecht und der Magna Carta überschritten habe.

Karl sagte mit seiner Zustimmung zur Petition zu, dass er ein solches Vorgehen in Zukunft unterlassen werde.

Dies änderte jedoch nichts am Machtgewinn des Parlaments auf Kosten der Krone. Ohne ein Parlament und damit ohne bewilligte Steuern war nicht nur der finanzielle Spielraum Karls I.

Deshalb schloss Karl schnell Frieden mit Frankreich und Spanien. In den folgenden Jahren verschärften sich die innenpolitischen Spannungen weiter. Der König erschien vielen Untertanen wie sein Vater als absolutistischer Herrscher.

In den Augen der Bevölkerung war die Legitimität der königlichen Herrschaft ohne das Parlament fraglich. Vor allem die in vielen Fällen tatsächlich willkürliche Erhebung von zusätzlichen Abgaben, die Karl zum Regieren ohne Steuern dringend benötigte, führte zu wachsendem Widerstand, ebenso Verwaltungsreformen und die Begünstigung der Arminianer durch den König.

Positiv aus Sicht des Königs entwickelte sich vor allem Irland. Unter der harten Regentschaft von Thomas Wentworth gedieh das Land wirtschaftlich.

In Schottland hatte Karl I. Diese erklärte sämtliche Bischöfe für abgesetzt und stellte ein eigenes Heer auf, das sogar in Nordengland einfiel.

Mit dem Krieg gegen die Schotten begann eine schwere Krise der englischen Monarchie. Um den Kampf im Norden finanzieren zu können, musste Karl I.

Dessen Mitglieder waren aber wegen ihrer vorangegangenen elfjährigen Ausschaltung zu keinen Zugeständnissen bereit. Nach nur einem Monat löste Karl das Parlament im Mai wieder auf.

Im Sommer konnte der König die schottische Invasion nur beenden, indem er einer Zahlung von Pfund täglich bis zu einem endgültigen Frieden zustimmte.

Damit brachen die Staatsfinanzen endgültig zusammen. November trat das Long Parliament zusammen, das bis bestehen sollte. Zahlreiche königliche Privilegien wurden abgeschafft.

Vor allem aber erkämpfte sich das Parlament das Recht, nicht mehr ohne die eigene Zustimmung aufgelöst werden zu dürfen.

Bald kam es aber über allzu radikale Forderungen zur Spaltung des Parlaments. Eine royalistische Gruppe bildete sich heraus, die grundsätzlich Karl I.

Ende August brach der Bürgerkrieg offen aus. Neben der Auseinandersetzung zwischen Monarchie und aufkeimendem Parlamentarismus lassen sich die Fronten auch anhand religiöser, wirtschaftlicher und Generationsunterschiede ausmachen.

Auf eine Belagerung oder einen Sturm verzichtete Karl, sondern strebte Verhandlungen an und unterbrach im Winter lediglich die Kohlezufuhr.

Dennoch brachte das Jahr weitere Siege der königlichen Truppen. Auch in dieser Lage blieben Verhandlungen ergebnislos.

Schottische Truppen unterstützten das Parlament und vertrieben die königlichen Einheiten aus Nordengland.

Gleichzeitig zerschlugen Parlamentstruppen unter Oliver Cromwell ein aus Irland übergesetztes königliches Heer. Dann folgten Auseinandersetzungen innerhalb des parlamentarischen Lagers, zunächst über die zukünftige Struktur der Kirche Englands, dann über die Heeresorganisation New Model Army.

Juni wurde Karl I. In dieser Situation tat sich eine neue Spaltung auf: Die Parlamentsarmee begann über gewählte Sprecher als eigenständiges politisches Gebilde mit eigener, auf dem Puritanismus aufbauender Ideologie zu agieren und sich dem Parlament zu widersetzen.

Es gab mehrere Verfassungsvorschläge, in denen König, Parlament und Armee jeweils verschiedene Rollen spielen sollte. Eine Einigung gab es nicht. Im November floh Karl I.

Bis zum Jahresende gelang es den Parlamentstruppen unter Oliver Cromwell allerdings, den royalistischen Widerstand endgültig zu brechen.

Dezember übernahm die Armee endgültig die Macht: Dieses Rumpfparlament löste entsprechend puritanischer Vorstellungen die Kirchenorganisation oberhalb der Gemeindeebene auf und leitete einen Prozess gegen Karl I.

Januar wurde der König in Whitehall hingerichtet. Die versprochenen Wahlen schob das Parlament immer weiter hinaus, um den Royalisten keine Gelegenheit zum Erstarken zu geben.

Cromwell wurde nach Irland geschickt, um den dortigen Aufstand niederzuschlagen, was er bis in einem blutigen, religiös begründeten Feldzug tat.

Unterdessen hatten die Schotten Karl II. Nachdem Cromwell das Heer Karls bei Dunbar besiegt, Edinburgh besetzt und den nach Nordengland einfallenden König bei Worcester endgültig geschlagen hatte, brach der Widerstand in Schottland schnell zusammen.

Unterdessen waren einige der ausgeschlossenen Parlamentarier wieder in das Rumpfparlament zurückgekehrt. Eine Regelung der religiösen Fragen blieb aber aus.

Zwar wurden einige puritanisch beeinflusste Verordnungen erlassen, doch setzten letztendlich die einzelnen Gemeinden ihre eigenen Regeln fest.

Darauf bildete er das Parliament of Saints , das vor allem aus Kirchenvertretern mit puritanischer Ausrichtung und Vertretern der radikalen Levellers -Bewegung bestand.

Nach diesem Misserfolg entwarf Oliver Cromwell eine Verfassung, die das unruhige Land stabilisieren sollte. Neben einem Parlament mit verbrieften Rechten und erstmals mit Abgeordneten aus England, Irland und Schottland war das neu geschaffene Amt des Lordprotektors , das Cromwell selbst übernahm, das Machtzentrum dieser Verfassung.

Die fortgesetzten religiösen Auseinandersetzungen versuchte Cromwell durch das weitgehende Abschaffen einer weisungsbefugten staatlichen Kirche zu beenden, was de facto sogar eine Art Religionsfreiheit für Katholiken und Juden zur Folge hatte.

Doch auch das neue Parlament geriet rasch in Konflikt mit der Armee und wurde bald wieder aufgelöst. Als ein erneuter Krieg mit Spanien ausbrach, musste Cromwell zur Steuerbewilligung wieder ein Parlament einberufen, das eine Einschränkung der religiösen Toleranz forderte, zugleich Cromwell aber die Königskrone anbot.

Dieser lehnte zwar ab, in der folgenden Zeit entstanden durch die bessere Zusammenarbeit zwischen Oliver Cromwell und dem Parlament aber eine Reihe von Gesetzen, die dem Land wieder feste politische Strukturen gaben.

Als Oliver Cromwell am 3. September starb, wurde sein Sohn Richard Cromwell sein Nachfolger, den die Armee jedoch schnell wieder absetzte. Nachdem diese Versuche gescheitert waren, gewann die Idee einer Monarchie Anhänger.

Monck zog im Triumphzug in London ein. Dort trat das Rumpfparlament erneut zusammen und nahm alle ausgeschlossenen Mitglieder wieder auf.

Dieses Parlament schrieb für März Wahlen zu einer Übergangsversammlung aus, die dadurch neu legitimiert wurde. Parallel wurden Verhandlungen mit Karl II.

Nachdem dieser eine Straffreiheit für alle während des Commonwealth begangenen Verbrechen sowie die Religionsfreiheit verkündete, wurde er mit Jubel als neuer König empfangen.

Mit mehreren Gesetzen wurden in Karls ersten Herrschaftsjahren die meisten presbyterianischen Geistlichen aus ihren Ämtern vertrieben.

Nach der relativen religiösen Liberalität des Commonwealth setzte wieder eine Phase der rigiden Kirchenpolitik ein.

Grundsätzlich wurden alle Gesetze widerrufen, denen Karl I. Insbesondere wurde das Parlamentswahlrecht wieder auf den Stand vor dem Commonwealth zurückversetzt und an den Besitz gebunden.

Irland und Schottland erhielten wieder eigene Parlamente, wobei das schottische kaum noch einberufen wurde und Irland insgesamt nahezu auf den Status einer Kolonie herabsank.

Ab verschlechterte sich die Stimmung in England zusehends. Die drei danach in kurzer Folge neu gewählten Parlamente waren allerdings noch deutlich stärker oppositionell zum König eingestellt.

Unterdessen war Karl II. Die Glorreiche Revolution führte zur Abschaffung des königlichen Absolutismus und der Gründung des modernen parlamentarischen Regierungssystems auf der Grundlage der Bill of Rights.

Seit dieser Revolution ist das englische Parlament Träger der Staatssouveränität. Es folgte eine Säuberungswelle, die zahlreiche Katholiken und Dissenters in öffentliche Ämter brachte.

Als ein Thronfolger geboren wurde, drohte der Beginn einer katholischen Dynastie auf dem englischen Thron. Jakob unterschätzte die Bedrohung und zögerte einen Kampf hinaus, nachdem sein Schwiegersohn am 5.

November im Südwesten Englands gelandet war. Wilhelm gewann schnell die Sympathie der Bevölkerung, in Jakobs zunächst weit überlegenem Heer kam es zu Desertionen, worauf Jakob panisch die Flucht nach Frankreich ergriff.

Mitte Dezember zog Wilhelm kampflos und umjubelt in London ein. Wilhelm von Oranien wurde, nachdem er die Bill of Rights unterschrieben hatte, vom Parlament legitimiert, die Regierungsgeschäfte zu führen.

Wilhelm von Oranien konzentrierte sich in den ersten Herrschaftsjahren vor allem auf den Krieg gegen Frankreich, das den geflohenen katholischen König unterstützte.

Die mit dem Krieg verbundene Aufrüstung brachte den Staatshaushalt schnell in Bedrängnis. Deshalb und weil Wilhelm immer mehr Ämter verlieh, an die ein Parlamentssitz gebunden war, kam es schon ab zu neuen Konflikten mit dem Parlament.

Dessen eingesessene Mitglieder befürchteten, dass der König über die ihm loyalen Neumitglieder Einfluss auf die Versammlung nehmen wolle.

Nach dem Frieden von Rijswijk drängte das Parlament massiv auf eine Reduzierung der Armee und gewährte dem König im Gegenzug einen festen Betrag zur Finanzierung seines Hofes, der nicht immer wieder bewilligt werden musste.

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Im Dunkel der Geschichte: Frauenbewegung in England vom Sheila Rowbotham ; Solveig Ockenfuss Publisher: German View all editions and formats Rating: View all subjects More like this Similar Items.

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Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms.

The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.

It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.

Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed. After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.

This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [70] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [71] the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.

The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.

In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.

As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [] and the United States except Louisiana.

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas.

The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain.

Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers.

They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world.

It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.

The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.

The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.

The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people.

In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business.

Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree.

The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.

Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti.

Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G. Cole are somewhat related.

Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest , composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers.

A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum.

Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, [] most lucrative, [] and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.

However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century.

In den er Jahren bildeten sich mehrere Bewegungen und Interessengruppen, die im Sinn der Aufklärung eine durch Vernunft gegliederte politische Ordnung forderten, was unter anderem eine Ausweitung des Wahlrechts auf die gesamte männliche Bevölkerung und eine Verringerung der Macht des Königs umfasste. Gleichzeitig zerschlugen Parlamentstruppen unter Oliver Cromwell ein aus Irland übergesetztes königliches Heer. Next casino askgamblers moderne Schreibweise England wurde erstmals für das Jahre nachgewiesen. England Landesteil des Vereinigten Königreiches. Allerdings wurde das englische Recht nicht auf Schottland übertragen und einige schottische Institutionen nicht mit ihrem englischen Handball em 2019 deutschland norwegen fusioniert; dazu zählen die Bank of Scotland und die Church of Scotland.

Geschichte England Video

Geschichte England The Idea of English Ethnicity. Sie entwickelten sich von burgenähnlichen Wehrbauten zu repräsentativen Landsitzen. Karl löste darauf das Parlament auf, musste es aber wieder einberufen, weil alternative Versuche verantwortungsbewusst Staatsfinanzierung durch Zwangsanleihen kaum Ertrag gebracht hatten. Specific information can be seen at a glance with concise Thrills Casino accurate details via the England History Timeline. Neben einem Parlament mit verbrieften Rechten und erstmals mit Abgeordneten aus England, Irland und Schottland war das neu geschaffene Amt des Lordprotektorsdas Cromwell selbst übernahm, das Machtzentrum dieser Verfassung. A Story of the London Foghelped shape the thriller barcelona vs celta vigo in film, while his film, Blackmailis often regarded as the first British sound feature film. Archived from the original on 22 November Rugby union originated in Rugby SchoolWarwickshire in the early 19th century. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Cabinet list Civil service Departments Prime Minister list. Gaunt's admiral sizzling hot free game, Henry Bolingbroke invaded England, livescore eishockey Richard was on campaign eurolotto ziehung freitag Ireland, usurping the throne from the cherry casino de. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Wren konnte sich mit seinen städtebaulichen Plänen wegen finanzieller und rechtlicher Probleme nicht durchsetzen. Die sofort einsetzende Märtyrer-Verehrung richtete sich auch gegen den König, der sich darauf öffentlich demütigen und das Appellationsverbot aufheben musste. Darauf bildete er das Parliament of Saints , das vor allem aus Kirchenvertretern mit puritanischer Ausrichtung und Vertretern der radikalen Levellers -Bewegung bestand. Es gibt zwar kein Gesetz, das besagt, dass Englisch die Amtssprache ist, aber Englisch ist die einzige Sprache, die für amtliche Zwecke verwendet wird. Es gab mehrere Verfassungsvorschläge, in denen König, Parlament und Armee jeweils verschiedene Rollen spielen sollte. Diese 39 historischen Grafschaften engl. Man ernannte den Architekten Christopher Wren zum Leiter des Wiederaufbauprogramms 51 von städtischen Kirchen wurden wieder aufgebaut. Ebenfalls in diesem Jahr wurde endgültig die Schreckensmeldung laut, dass die Rinderseuche BSE nun doch auf den Menschen übertragen werden könnte, was führende Wissenschaftler seit Langem befürchtet hatten. September starb, wurde sein Sohn Richard Cromwell sein Nachfolger, den die Armee jedoch schnell wieder absetzte. In Irland bricht ein von Frankreich unterstützter Aufstand gegen die Briten aus. Danach setzte eine Phase militärischer Misserfolge für die Engländer ein. Als die britischen Radikalen und Kontakt mit den französischen Revolutionären aufnahm, hob die Regierung zahlreiche Freiheitsrechte auf, worauf die Reformbewegung in den Untergrund ging. Sie erklärte sofort den unter Wilhelm vorbereiteten Krieg gegen Frankreich und Spanien. Darüber hinaus führte die unterschiedliche Berechnung des Osterfestes im Alltag der Menschen zu Verwirrung.

Geschichte england -

In der heutigen Zeit ist die englische Premier League die meistgesehene [35] und lukrativste [36] Liga weltweit. Einzelheiten sind in den Nutzungsbedingungen beschrieben. Dort trat das Rumpfparlament erneut zusammen und nahm alle ausgeschlossenen Mitglieder wieder auf. Zu dem gründete er damit die normannische Dynastie. Karl wurde hingerichtet und England zur Republik. In diesem Stil ist Geschichte absolut für jeden spannend!

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Im Dunkel der Geschichte: Frauenbewegung in England vom Sheila Rowbotham ; Solveig Ockenfuss Publisher: German View all editions and formats Rating: View all subjects More like this Similar Items.

Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Throughout the 7th and 8th century power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms.

Bede records Aethelbert of Kent as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Northumbria, which was formed from the amalgamation of Bernicia and Deira.

Edwin of Northumbria probably held dominance over much of Britain, though Bede's Northumbrian bias should be kept in mind.

Due to succession crises, Northumbrian hegemony was not constant, and Mercia remained a very powerful kingdom, especially under Penda.

Two defeats ended Northumbrian dominance: The so-called "Mercian Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant. Aethelbald and Offa , the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Offa was considered the overlord of south Britain by Charlemagne.

His power is illustrated by the fact that he summoned the resources to build Offa's Dyke. However, a rising Wessex, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Mercian power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Mercian Supremacy" was over.

This period has been described as the Heptarchy , though this term has now fallen out of academic use. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Hwicce , Magonsaete , Lindsey and Middle Anglia.

The first recorded landing of Vikings took place in in Dorsetshire , on the south-west coast. However, by then the Vikings were almost certainly well-established in Orkney and Shetland , and many other non-recorded raids probably occurred before this.

Records do show the first Viking attack on Iona taking place in The arrival of the Vikings in particular the Danish Great Heathen Army upset the political and social geography of Britain and Ireland.

In Northumbria fell to the Danes; East Anglia fell in Though Wessex managed to contain the Vikings by defeating them at Ashdown in , a second invading army landed, leaving the Saxons on a defensive footing.

Alfred was immediately confronted with the task of defending Wessex against the Danes. He spent the first five years of his reign paying the invaders off.

In , Alfred's forces were overwhelmed at Chippenham in a surprise attack. It was only now, with the independence of Wessex hanging by a thread, that Alfred emerged as a great king.

In May he led a force that defeated the Danes at Edington. The victory was so complete that the Danish leader, Guthrum , was forced to accept Christian baptism and withdraw from Mercia.

Alfred then set about strengthening the defences of Wessex, building a new navy—60 vessels strong. Alfred's success bought Wessex and Mercia years of peace and sparked economic recovery in previously ravaged areas.

Alfred's success was sustained by his son Edward , whose decisive victories over the Danes in East Anglia in and were followed by a crushing victory at Tempsford in These military gains allowed Edward to fully incorporate Mercia into his kingdom and add East Anglia to his conquests.

Edward then set about reinforcing his northern borders against the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. Edward's rapid conquest of the English kingdoms meant Wessex received homage from those that remained, including Gwynedd in Wales and Scotland.

These conquests led to his adopting the title 'King of the English' for the first time. The dominance and independence of England was maintained by the kings that followed.

Two powerful Danish kings Harold Bluetooth and later his son Sweyn both launched devastating invasions of England. Anglo-Saxon forces were resoundingly defeated at Maldon in More Danish attacks followed, and their victories were frequent.

His solution was to pay off the Danes: These payments, known as Danegelds , crippled the English economy. Then he then made a great error: In response, Sweyn began a decade of devastating attacks on England.

Northern England, with its sizable Danish population, sided with Sweyn. By , London, Oxford, and Winchester had fallen to the Danes.

Cnut seized the throne, crowning himself King of England. Alfred of Wessex died in and was succeeded by his son Edward the Elder.

The titles attributed to him in charters and on coins suggest a still more widespread dominance. His expansion aroused ill-feeling among the other kingdoms of Britain, and he defeated a combined Scottish-Viking army at the Battle of Brunanburh.

However, the unification of England was not a certainty. Nevertheless, Edgar , who ruled the same expanse as Athelstan, consolidated the kingdom, which remained united thereafter.

There were renewed Scandinavian attacks on England at the end of the 10th century. Under his rule the kingdom became the centre of government for the North Sea empire which included Denmark and Norway.

Cnut was succeeded by his sons, but in the native dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor.

Edward's failure to produce an heir caused a furious conflict over the succession on his death in His struggles for power against Godwin, Earl of Wessex , the claims of Cnut's Scandinavian successors, and the ambitions of the Normans whom Edward introduced to English politics to bolster his own position caused each to vie for control of Edward's reign.

Harold Godwinson became king, probably appointed by Edward on his deathbed and endorsed by the Witan. After marching from Yorkshire , Harold's exhausted army was defeated and Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October.

For five years, he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of England and a half-hearted Danish invasion, but he subdued them and established an enduring regime.

The Norman Conquest led to a profound change in the history of the English state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes, which reveals that within 20 years of the conquest the English ruling class had been almost entirely dispossessed and replaced by Norman landholders, who monopolised all senior positions in the government and the Church.

William and his nobles spoke and conducted court in Norman French , in both Normandy and England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English.

Upon being crowned, on Christmas Day , William immediately began consolidating his power. By , he faced revolts on all sides and spent four years crushing them.

He then imposed his superiority over Scotland and Wales, forcing them to recognise him as overlord. The English Middle Ages were characterised by civil war , international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite.

England was more than self-sufficient in cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. Its international economy was based on wool trade , in which wool from the sheepwalks of northern England was exported to the textile cities of Flanders , where it was worked into cloth.

Medieval foreign policy was as much shaped by relations with the Flemish textile industry as it was by dynastic adventures in western France.

An English textile industry was established in the 15th century, providing the basis for rapid English capital accumulation. Henry was also known as "Henry Beauclerc" because he received a formal education, unlike his older brother and heir apparent William who got practical training to be king.

Henry worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies. The loss of his son, William Adelin , in the wreck of the White Ship in November , undermined his reforms.

This problem regarding succession cast a long shadow over English history. Henry I had required the leading barons, ecclesiastics and officials in Normandy and England, to take an oath to accept Matilda also known as Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter as his heir.

England was far less than enthusiastic to accept an outsider, and a woman, as their ruler. There is some evidence that Henry was unsure of his own hopes and the oath to make Matilda his heir.

Probably Henry hoped Matilda would have a son and step aside as Queen Mother. Upon Henry's death, the Norman and English barons ignored Matilda's claim to the throne, and thus through a series of decisions, Stephen , Henry's favourite nephew, was welcomed by many in England and Normandy as their new king.

On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation. Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy.

In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife.

During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i. Stephen was captured, and his government fell.

Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France.

Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy. As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.

His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.

When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.

The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.

The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.

This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.

Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "The absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.

His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.

From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of the Magna Carta.

Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons. In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him.

He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.

But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress.

John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.

John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta [32] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.

His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.

One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.

Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.

Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.

This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I. The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful.

Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.

He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.

Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.

This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.

In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.

While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this.

The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.

Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.

Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.

Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.

Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe.

His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.

This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.

Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy, [43] the English gradually got the better of the encounter.

In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years, [44] coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.

It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.

Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.

Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.

The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth , who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.

He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.

Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses.

While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government. It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.

However, in , Joan of Arc began a military effort to prevent the English from gaining control of France.

The French forces regained control of French territory. In , Henry VI came of age and began to actively rule as king.

To forge peace, he married French noblewoman Margaret of Anjou in , as provided in the Treaty of Tours. Hostilities with France resumed in He could not control the feuding nobles, and civil war began called Wars of the Roses — Although fighting was very sporadic and small, there was a general breakdown in the power of the Crown.

The royal court and Parliament moved to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heartlands, which thus became the capital of England until Henry's cousin deposed Henry in to became Edward IV.

He defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. He was briefly expelled from the throne in — when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick , brought Henry back to power.

Six months later, Edward defeated and killed Warwick in battle and reclaimed the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there.

Edward went a little way to restoring the power of the Crown. Edward died in , only 40 years old. His eldest son and heir Edward V , aged 13, could not succeed him because the king's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester declared his marriage bigamous, making all his children illegitimate.

Richard declared himself king. Edward V and his year-old brother Richard were imprisoned in the Tower of London and were not seen again.

It was widely believed that Richard had them murdered and he was reviled as a treacherous fiend, which limited his ability to govern during his brief reign.

Traditionally, the Battle of Bosworth Field is considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages in England, although Henry did not introduce any new concept of monarchy, and for most of his reign his hold on power was tenuous.

He claimed the throne by conquest and God's judgement in battle. Parliament quickly recognized him as king, but the Yorkists were far from defeated.

Most of the European rulers did not believe Henry would survive long, and were thus willing to shelter claimants against him. The first plot against him was the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion of , which presented no serious threat.

Using a peasant boy named Lambert Simnel , who posed as Edward, Earl of Warwick the real Warwick was locked up in the Tower of London , he led an army of 2, German mercenaries paid for by Margaret of Burgundy into England.

They were defeated and de la Pole was killed at the difficult Battle of Stoke , where the loyalty of some of the royal troops to Henry was questionable.

The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen. Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from — before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.

In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.

He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.

Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.

In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.

Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV.

Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses. The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death.

Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death. He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government.

In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.

When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed.

Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism. The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father.

Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited. He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary.

In , the young king started a war in France. Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.

The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.

Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.

While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.

At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed.

When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory. Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children.

The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.

He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus: However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.

The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.

Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation.

The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.

It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies. In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.

Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child.

Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised. They had a second, public wedding. Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed.

But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth. The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry.

Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour. In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident.

Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy. By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.

Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.

Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.

However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.

The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.

He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.

He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.

But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.

His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.

He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated. Henry's paranoia and suspicion worsened in his last years.

The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands. He died in January at age 55 and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI. Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in He took the title of Protector.

While some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in when many counties of the realm were up in protest.

Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council for being autocratic, was removed from power by John Dudley , who is known as Lord President Northumberland.

Northumberland proceeded to adopt the power for himself, but he was more conciliatory and the Council accepted him. During Edward's reign England changed from being a Catholic nation to a Protestant one, in schism from Rome.

Edward showed great promise but fell violently ill of tuberculosis in and died that August, two months before his 16th birthday.

Northumberland made plans to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he could remain the power behind the throne.

His plot failed in a matter of days, Jane Grey was beheaded, and Mary I — took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch.

Mary had never been expected to hold the throne, at least not since Edward was born. She was a devoted Catholic who believed that she could reverse the Reformation.

Returning England to Catholicism led to the burnings of Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe 's Book of Martyrs. The union was difficult because Mary was already in her late 30s and Philip was a Catholic and a foreigner, and so not very welcome in England.

This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs.

Calais, the last English outpost on the Continent, was then taken by France. King Philip — had very little power, although he did protect Elizabeth.

He was not popular in England, and spent little time there. In reality, she may have had uterine cancer. Her death in November was greeted with huge celebrations in the streets of London.

After Mary I died in , Elizabeth I came to the throne. Much of Elizabeth's success was in balancing the interests of the Puritans and Catholics.

She managed to offend neither to a large extent, although she clamped down on Catholics towards the end of her reign as war with Catholic Spain loomed.

Despite the need for an heir, Elizabeth declined to marry, despite offers from a number of suitors across Europe, including the Swedish king Erik XIV.

This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the s when she nearly died of smallpox. It has been often rumoured that she had a number of lovers including Francis Drake , but there is no hard evidence.

Elizabeth maintained relative government stability. Apart from the Revolt of the Northern Earls in , she was effective in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of her government.

Elizabeth's government did much to consolidate the work begun under Thomas Cromwell in the reign of Henry VIII, that is, expanding the role of the government and effecting common law and administration throughout England.

During the reign of Elizabeth and shortly afterwards, the population grew significantly: The queen ran afoul of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , who was a devoted Catholic and so was forced to abdicate her throne Scotland had recently become Protestant.

She fled to England, where Elizabeth immediately had her arrested. Mary spent the next 19 years in confinement, but proved too dangerous to keep alive, as the Catholic powers in Europe considered her the legitimate ruler of England.

She was eventually tried for treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded in February Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history.

The symbol of Britannia was first used in and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.

In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years.

This "golden age" [51] represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature.

The era is most famous for theatre , as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre.

It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed.

It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly largely because of the periods before and after.

It was a brief period of largely internal peace after the battles between Catholics and Protestants during the English Reformation and before battles between parliament and the monarchy of the 17th century.

England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe. Italian Renaissance had ended due to foreign domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in religious battles until the Edict of Nantes in Also, the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent.

Due to these reasons, the centuries long conflict with France was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign. England's great rival was Spain, both in Europe and the Americas.

Skirmishes exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of — Then Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, and Spanish naval and land forces made a series of reversals of English offensives.

This drained English Exchequer and economy that had been carefully restored under Elizabeth's guidance.

English commercial and territorial expansion was limited until the Treaty of London of the year after Elizabeth's death. During the brief height of the Anglo-Spanish war, almost 45, were killed, of which one-third were Spanish, the rest English.

Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade. In foreign policy, Elizabeth played against each other the major powers France and Spain, as well as the papacy and Scotland.

These were all Catholic and each wanted to end Protestantism in England. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland.

The major war came with Spain, — When Spain tried to invade and conquer England, the defeat of the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth's name with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.

Her enemies failed to combine and Elizabeth's foreign policy successfully navigated all the dangers.

In all, the Tudor period is seen as a decisive one which set up many important questions which would have to be answered in the next century and during the English Civil War.

These were questions of the relative power of the monarch and Parliament and to what extent one should control the other.

Some historians think that Thomas Cromwell affected a "Tudor Revolution" in government, and it is certain that Parliament became more important during his chancellorship.

Other historians argue that the "Tudor Revolution" extended to the end of Elizabeth's reign, when the work was all consolidated.