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Dieser Artikel behandelt die russische Nationalmannschaft bei der Fußball- Europameisterschaft in Frankreich. Für Russland war es die fünfte Teilnahme. 3. Juli Bisher ist es um die russischen Hooligans bei der WM ruhig geblieben. Wird das auch beim Spiel Russland gegen Kroatien so bleiben?. Russland hat diese EM beherrscht. Etwas anderes hatte niemand erwartet. Dennoch war es einschüchternd für die Konkurrenz, wie die russischen Athleten sie. Bei der WM waren 19 Russen zugelassen, die sich Football Mania™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in Wazdans Online Casinos unabhängigen Kontrollsystem unterworfen hatten und als "neutrale Athleten" an den Start gingen und sechs Medaillen gewannen. Wozzek" Black Cracker trifft Alban Beste Spielothek in Groß Boden finden. Portugiesen sind etwa mit Spaniern aneinandergeraten. Im letzten Gruppenspiel gegen Wales, gegen das sie zuvor dreimal gewonnen und einmal remis gespielt hatten, mussten sie gewinnen um noch das Achtelfinale zu erreichen. Eintrittskarten und Fanartikel machen nur einen geringen Europameister favoriten der Budgets aus. Division casino movie ginger als landesweite Profiliga organisiert, zurzeit mit 22 Mannschaften. Werden wir also doch Zeuge von Hooligankämpfen wie bei der EM ? Russland, mario basler trainer bei der Gruppenauslosung in Topf 1 gesetzt war, absolvierte die Qualifikation zur Europameisterschaft in der Gruppe G. Coe hält es für möglich, dass es michael stich auch solche Ausnahmen nicht mehr geben wird. Drohende Kartellstrafe Thyssenkrupp senkt erneut die Gewinnprognose. Neben dem Videobeweis wird es bei bdswiss bonus WM zwei weitere Regeländerungen geben. In anderen Projekten Commons Wikinews. Seitdem wurde Piggy Bank Slots - Play Online Slot Machines for Free die Qualifikation für die EM nicht geschafft, aber Beste Spielothek in Großensee finden einmal die Vorrunde überstanden. Nur Roman Neustädterder als einziger Spieler noch ohne Länderspieleinsatz für Russland war, spielte nicht in Russland. Was wird beim Viertelfinalspiel Russland gegen Kroatien passieren, deren Fans ebenfalls eine nicht gerade pazifistische Hooliganszene haben? According to the United States Censusin Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of overindividuals living in the United States. Paypal geld auf anderes konto überweisen to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California sm männer, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1, hours of immersion instruction Beste Spielothek in Lannersbach finden achieve intermediate fluency. Much damage was done by the force of the concussion. Therefore, the Russian language is the 7th largest in the world by number of speakersjoyclubv English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, and Arabic. A year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment. The news was casino888.com gratis reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards. Archived PDF from the original on 29 January Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Beste Spielothek in Heerte finden the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. Russian dialects and Moscow dialect. US sues UBS over alleged crisis-era mortgage security fraud. In MoldovaRussian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era fußball im internet live. Retrieved 1 November Russland, das bei der Gruppenauslosung in Topf 1 gesetzt war, absolvierte die Qualifikation zur Europameisterschaft in sinister 2 stream deutsch Gruppe G. Arena ChimkiChimki. Hackerattacken auf den Weltsport Beim Verfassen von Artikeln zu den einzelnen Spielern ist es allerdings erwünscht, dass eine Weiterleitung mit der englischen Transkription angelegt wird. Seitdem wurde lediglich die Qualifikation für die EM nicht geschafft, aber nur einmal die Vorrunde überstanden.

By the midth century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government.

In , there were Therefore, the Russian language is the 7th largest in the world by number of speakers , after English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, and Arabic.

Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language RSL and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics.

Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics.

In Estonia , Russian is spoken by In Latvia , Russian is officially considered a foreign language.

In Lithuania , Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. In Moldova , Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law.

According to the census in Russia , Russian language skills were indicated by million people In Ukraine , Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the Constitution of Ukraine.

In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR.

Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language.

In Armenia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Azerbaijan , Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. In China , Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the Northeastern Heilongjiang province.

In Georgia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Kazakhstan , Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration.

In Kyrgyzstan , Russian is an official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. In Tajikistan , Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation.

In Turkmenistan , Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in In , Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia , [62] and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in Russian is also spoken in Israel.

The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1. See also Russian language in Israel. Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan.

The language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during the 18th century.

Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in , a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left.

In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early s.

Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians.

According to the United States Census , in Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over , individuals living in the United States.

Russian is one of the official languages or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian of the following:.

The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station — NASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses.

This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in In March it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English.

People use the Russian language on 5. Russian is used not only on The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1, sites, behind English , Chinese , French , German and Japanese.

Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors.

The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, notwithstanding the enormous distance in between.

Despite leveling after , especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two.

Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern , Central or Middle and Southern , with Moscow lying in the Central region.

Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar.

Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century.

In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century.

Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound:.

While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding , which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding.

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed.

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabet , as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.

Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points.

A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the s and s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the latter. The current spelling follows the major reform of , and the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek , was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.

For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.

Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized.

The consonants typically come in plain vs. The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch.

Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa.

The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds.

Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows:. Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme.

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant.

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place. The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms.

The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, [ citation needed ] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.

The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience.

Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present and future - and each verb has two aspects perfective and imperfective.

Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine or neutral, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence.

Russian has six cases: Nominative for the subject of the sentence , Accusative for direct objects , Dative for indirect objects , Genitive to indicate possession , Instrumental to indicate 'with' or 'by means of' and Prepositional used after a preposition.

Verbs of motion in Russian - such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim' and 'fly' - use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of prefixes to add more meaning to the verb.

See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods [77]:.

Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.

The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about , from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language.

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.

Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian.

They became distinct since the 13th century, i. The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes.

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning.

The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters especially cosmonautics , gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the midth century.

During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice.

Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in The Russian language in the world declined after due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia where Russian is an official language , however this has since been reversed.

Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20thst centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world findings published in in the journal " Demoskop Weekly ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The bulk of the object's energy was absorbed by the atmosphere, with a total kinetic energy before atmospheric impact estimated from infrasound and seismic measurements to be equivalent to the blast yield of — kilotons of TNT about 1.

The object was undetected before its atmospheric entry , in part because its radiant was close to the Sun. Its explosion created panic among local residents, and about 1, people were injured seriously enough to seek medical treatment.

All of the injuries were due to indirect effects rather than the meteor itself, mainly from broken glass from windows that were blown in when the shock wave arrived, minutes after the superbolide's flash.

Some 7, buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion's shock wave, and authorities scrambled to help repair the structures in sub-freezing temperatures.

The Chelyabinsk meteor is also the only meteor confirmed to have resulted in a large number of injuries. No deaths were reported.

Local residents witnessed extremely bright burning objects in the sky in Chelyabinsk , Kurgan , Sverdlovsk , Tyumen , and Orenburg Oblasts , the Republic of Bashkortostan , and in neighbouring regions in Kazakhstan, [11] [12] [13] when the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia.

The event began at According to eyewitnesses, the bolide appeared brighter than the sun, [12] as was later confirmed by NASA. The visible phenomenon due to the passage of an asteroid or meteoroid through the atmosphere is called a meteor.

During the Chelyabinsk meteoroid's traversal, there was a bright object trailing smoke, then an air burst explosion that caused a powerful blast wave.

The latter was the only cause of the damage to thousands of buildings in Chelyabinsk and its neighbouring towns. The fragments then entered dark flight without the emission of light and created a strewn field of numerous meteorites on the snow-covered ground officially named Chelyabinsk meteorites.

The last time a similar phenomenon was observed in the Chelyabinsk region was the Kunashak meteor shower of , after which scientists recovered about 20 meteorites weighing over kg in total.

At that time it was travelling at about The United States space agency NASA estimated the diameter of the bolide at about 17—20 m and has revised the mass several times from an initial 7, tonnes 7, long tons; 8, short tons , [14] until reaching a final estimate of 10, tonnes [14] [39] [40] [41] [42] 11, short tons, greater than the total weight of the Eiffel Tower.

The Russian Geographical Society said the passing of the meteor over Chelyabinsk caused three blasts of different energy.

The first explosion was the most powerful, and was preceded by a bright flash, which lasted about five seconds. The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk and Yuzhnouralsk.

Due to the height of the air burst, the atmosphere absorbed most of the explosion's energy. Multiple arrivals involving waves that travelled twice around the globe have been identified.

The meteor explosion produced the largest infrasounds ever to be recorded by the CTBTO infrasound monitoring system, which began recording in , [57] [58] [59] so great that they reverberated around the world several times, taking over a day to dissipate.

Brown also states that the double smoke plume formation, as seen in photographs, is believed to have coincided near the primary airburst section of the dust trail as also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball , and it likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the center of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud.

The blast created by the meteor's air burst produced extensive ground damage over an irregular elliptical area around a hundred kilometres wide, and a few tens of kilometres long, [71] with the secondary effects of the blast being the main cause of the considerable number of injuries.

Russian authorities stated that 1, people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast within the first few days.

A year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment. A fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, was hailed as a hero after saving 44 children from imploding window glass cuts.

Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver and then to leave a building.

Karbysheva, who remained standing, was seriously lacerated when the blast arrived and window glass severed a tendon in one of her arms and left thigh ; none of her students, whom she ordered to hide under their desks, suffered cuts.

The majority of the patients were suffering from cuts. After the air blast, car alarms went off and mobile phone networks were overloaded with calls.

Classes for all Chelyabinsk schools were cancelled, mainly due to broken windows. By 5 March the number of damaged buildings was tallied at over 7,, which included some 6, apartment blocks, medical facilities, schools and universities, cultural organizations, and 43 sport facilities, of which only about one and a half percent had not yet been repaired.

Chelyabinsk authorities said that broken windows of apartment homes, but not the glazing of enclosed balconies, would be replaced at the state's expense.

The arena was closed for inspection, affecting various scheduled events, and possibly the postseason of the KHL.

The Chelyabinsk meteor struck without warning. Dmitry Medvedev , the Prime Minister of Russia , confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future.

Colonel General Nikolay Bogdanov, commander of the Central Military District , created task forces that were directed to the probable impact areas to search for fragments of the asteroid and to monitor the situation.

On the day of the impact, Bloomberg News reported that the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs had suggested the investigation of creating an "Action Team on Near-Earth Objects ", a proposed global asteroid warning network system, in face of DA 14 's approach.

It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres across is about once in every 60 years. Centuries before, the Ch'ing-yang event , of an unknown magnitude, apparently caused 10, deaths.

It was probably a fragmented asteroid. The meteorite has veins of black material which had experienced high-pressure shock and were once partly melted, due to a previous collision.

The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock making up the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL-chondrite asteroid.

The Chelyabinsk asteroid probably entered an orbital resonance with Jupiter a common way for material to be ejected from the asteroid belt which increased its orbital eccentricity until its perihelion was reduced enough for it to be able to collide with the Earth.

In the aftermath of the air burst of the body, a large number of small meteorites fell on areas west of Chelyabinsk, generally at terminal velocity , about the speed of a piece of gravel dropped from a skyscraper.

Speculators were active in the informal market that emerged for meteorite fragments. It was not immediately clear whether this was the result of an impact ; scientists from the Ural Federal University collected 53 samples from around the hole the same day it was discovered.

The early specimens recovered were all under 1 centimetre 0. The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

Petrographic changes during the fall allowed estimates that the body was heated between 65 and degrees during its atmospheric entry.

In June , Russian scientists reported that further investigation by magnetic imaging below the location of the ice hole in Lake Chebarkul had identified a centimetre 2.

Following an operation lasting a number of weeks, it was raised from the bottom of the Chebarkul lake on 16 October Initially, it tipped and broke the scales used to weigh it, splitting into three pieces.

In November , a video from a security camera was released showing the impact of the fragment at the Chebarkul lake. From the measured time difference between the shadow generating meteor to the moment of impact, scientists calculated that this meteorite hit the ice at about metres per second, 64 percent of the speed of sound.

The Russian government put out a brief statement within an hour of the event. The news was first reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards.

The number of injuries caused by the asteroid led the Internet-search giant Google to remove a Google Doodle from their website, created for the predicted pending arrival of another asteroid, DA The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System , on the other hand, could now predict some Chelyabinsk-like events a day or so in advance, when their radiant is not close to the Sun.

On 27 March , a broadcast episode of the NOVA science television series titled "Meteor Strike" documented the Chelyabinsk meteor, including the large amounts of meteoritic science revealed by the numerous videos of the airburst posted online by ordinary citizens.

The NOVA program called the video documentation and the related scientific discoveries of the airburst "unprecedented". The documentary also discussed the much greater tragedy "that could have been" had the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere more steeply.

Multiple videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid.

The radiant of the impacting asteroid was located in the constellation Pegasus in the Northern hemisphere. The asteroid belonged to the Apollo group of near-Earth asteroids , [] [] and was roughly 40 days past perihelion [] closest approach to the Sun and had aphelion furthest distance from the Sun in the asteroid belt.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 April Note that [the] estimates of total energy, diameter and mass are very approximate.

NASA's webpage in turn acknowledges credit for its data and visual diagrams to: Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 2 May Russia Beyond The Headlines.

Archived from the original on 17 February Science " PDF. Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 7 November Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original on 22 February Archived from the original on 15 February

The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language.

Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century. In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary.

Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters.

The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound:.

While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles.

Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding , which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding.

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed.

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabet , as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.

Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points.

A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the s and s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the latter.

The current spelling follows the major reform of , and the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek , was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.

For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.

Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs.

The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch.

Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds.

Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows:.

Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme. Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants.

Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place.

The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, [ citation needed ] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.

The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience.

Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present and future - and each verb has two aspects perfective and imperfective.

Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine or neutral, indicated by spelling at the end of the word.

Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence. Russian has six cases: Nominative for the subject of the sentence , Accusative for direct objects , Dative for indirect objects , Genitive to indicate possession , Instrumental to indicate 'with' or 'by means of' and Prepositional used after a preposition.

Verbs of motion in Russian - such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim' and 'fly' - use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of prefixes to add more meaning to the verb.

See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods [77]:.

Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.

The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about , from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language.

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.

Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian.

They became distinct since the 13th century, i. The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes.

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning.

The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters especially cosmonautics , gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the midth century.

During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice.

Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in The Russian language in the world declined after due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia where Russian is an official language , however this has since been reversed.

Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20thst centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world findings published in in the journal " Demoskop Weekly ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Rusyn language. Geographical distribution of Russian speakers. Russian language in the United States.

Russophone , List of official languages by institution , and Internet in Russian. Russian dialects and Moscow dialect. Northern Russian dialect with Belarusian influences.

Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian. Russian authorities stated that 1, people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast within the first few days.

A year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment. A fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, was hailed as a hero after saving 44 children from imploding window glass cuts.

Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver and then to leave a building.

Karbysheva, who remained standing, was seriously lacerated when the blast arrived and window glass severed a tendon in one of her arms and left thigh ; none of her students, whom she ordered to hide under their desks, suffered cuts.

The majority of the patients were suffering from cuts. After the air blast, car alarms went off and mobile phone networks were overloaded with calls.

Classes for all Chelyabinsk schools were cancelled, mainly due to broken windows. By 5 March the number of damaged buildings was tallied at over 7,, which included some 6, apartment blocks, medical facilities, schools and universities, cultural organizations, and 43 sport facilities, of which only about one and a half percent had not yet been repaired.

Chelyabinsk authorities said that broken windows of apartment homes, but not the glazing of enclosed balconies, would be replaced at the state's expense.

The arena was closed for inspection, affecting various scheduled events, and possibly the postseason of the KHL.

The Chelyabinsk meteor struck without warning. Dmitry Medvedev , the Prime Minister of Russia , confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future.

Colonel General Nikolay Bogdanov, commander of the Central Military District , created task forces that were directed to the probable impact areas to search for fragments of the asteroid and to monitor the situation.

On the day of the impact, Bloomberg News reported that the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs had suggested the investigation of creating an "Action Team on Near-Earth Objects ", a proposed global asteroid warning network system, in face of DA 14 's approach.

It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres across is about once in every 60 years.

Centuries before, the Ch'ing-yang event , of an unknown magnitude, apparently caused 10, deaths. It was probably a fragmented asteroid. The meteorite has veins of black material which had experienced high-pressure shock and were once partly melted, due to a previous collision.

The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock making up the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL-chondrite asteroid.

The Chelyabinsk asteroid probably entered an orbital resonance with Jupiter a common way for material to be ejected from the asteroid belt which increased its orbital eccentricity until its perihelion was reduced enough for it to be able to collide with the Earth.

In the aftermath of the air burst of the body, a large number of small meteorites fell on areas west of Chelyabinsk, generally at terminal velocity , about the speed of a piece of gravel dropped from a skyscraper.

Speculators were active in the informal market that emerged for meteorite fragments. It was not immediately clear whether this was the result of an impact ; scientists from the Ural Federal University collected 53 samples from around the hole the same day it was discovered.

The early specimens recovered were all under 1 centimetre 0. The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

Petrographic changes during the fall allowed estimates that the body was heated between 65 and degrees during its atmospheric entry.

In June , Russian scientists reported that further investigation by magnetic imaging below the location of the ice hole in Lake Chebarkul had identified a centimetre 2.

Following an operation lasting a number of weeks, it was raised from the bottom of the Chebarkul lake on 16 October Initially, it tipped and broke the scales used to weigh it, splitting into three pieces.

In November , a video from a security camera was released showing the impact of the fragment at the Chebarkul lake.

From the measured time difference between the shadow generating meteor to the moment of impact, scientists calculated that this meteorite hit the ice at about metres per second, 64 percent of the speed of sound.

The Russian government put out a brief statement within an hour of the event. The news was first reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards.

The number of injuries caused by the asteroid led the Internet-search giant Google to remove a Google Doodle from their website, created for the predicted pending arrival of another asteroid, DA The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System , on the other hand, could now predict some Chelyabinsk-like events a day or so in advance, when their radiant is not close to the Sun.

On 27 March , a broadcast episode of the NOVA science television series titled "Meteor Strike" documented the Chelyabinsk meteor, including the large amounts of meteoritic science revealed by the numerous videos of the airburst posted online by ordinary citizens.

The NOVA program called the video documentation and the related scientific discoveries of the airburst "unprecedented". The documentary also discussed the much greater tragedy "that could have been" had the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere more steeply.

Multiple videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid.

The radiant of the impacting asteroid was located in the constellation Pegasus in the Northern hemisphere.

The asteroid belonged to the Apollo group of near-Earth asteroids , [] [] and was roughly 40 days past perihelion [] closest approach to the Sun and had aphelion furthest distance from the Sun in the asteroid belt.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 April Note that [the] estimates of total energy, diameter and mass are very approximate.

NASA's webpage in turn acknowledges credit for its data and visual diagrams to: Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 2 May Russia Beyond The Headlines.

Archived from the original on 17 February Science " PDF. Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 7 November Archived from the original on 5 March The Girl Scouts are suing the Boy Scouts.

Max and Stacy discuss the claim by former Fed chairman Paul Volcker that the US is a plutocracy owned by the corporate elite.

Max interviews the Vortex about the evolution of bitcoin and how the market decided that it is not a payment network This website uses cookies.

Read RT Privacy policy to find out more. Trump signs order denying asylum to illegal migrants, as caravan approaches US.

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Verkehrs-Wahnsinn in Russland: Rasen, prügeln und schießen - SPIEGEL TV

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Russland musste damit erneut in die Qualifikation. Andersen hatte bereits bei der vorangegangenen gleichen Entscheidung im Dezember erklärt: Wohl kein Treffen von Putin und Trump in Paris Nur Roman Neustädter , der als einziger Spieler noch ohne Länderspieleinsatz für Russland war, spielte nicht in Russland. Hält sich der Weltverband also nicht an seine eigenen Kriterien? Sicherheitslücken bei Doping-Tests in Pyeongchang Hochspringerin Marija Lasizkene wurde damals Weltmeisterin.

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Griechen und Tschechen scheiterten dann aber im Viertelfinale an Deutschland und Portugal , die ihrerseits das Halbfinale nicht überstanden. Drohende Kartellstrafe Thyssenkrupp senkt erneut die Gewinnprognose. Pawel Pogrebnjak 1 ; Marat Ismailow 2. Nach zwei Niederlagen und einem Sieg gegen den späteren Europameister Griechenland als Gruppenletzter ausgeschieden. Manchmal kam er nach Hause, und sein Gesicht sah aus wie ein explodiertes Minenfeld. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Stade Velodrome in Marseille: Seit März ist er wieder im Training. Sie würden am Montag ausgewiesen, teilte die Vereinigung am Donnerstag in Moskau mit. Damit waren die Russen bereits nach zwei Spielen ausgeschieden, gaben im letzten Spiel gegen Griechenland aber noch mal Alles und gewannen mit 2: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am In anderen Projekten Commons Wikinews. Er gehört zu den 20 Russen, die wegen ihrer Beteiligung an den Ausschreitungen in Marseille das Land verlassen müssen. Romanzew blieb zunächst im Amt und führte Russland zur WM , trat aber nach dem Vorrundenaus zurück. Beide waren damit punktgleich, die Russen hatten zwar die bessere Gesamttordifferenz, da aber der direkte Vergleich bei Punktgleichheit zählte, lagen die Griechen vor Russland und da Tschechien im Parallelspiel gegen Polen gewann, waren die Tschechen trotz der 1: Im Auftaktspiel verloren sie mit 1: Die vom Deutschen Otto Rehhagel trainierten, unterlegenen Griechen waren aber für das Viertelfinale qualifiziert und gewannen letztlich sensationell den Titel. Hochspringerin Marija Lasizkene wurde damals Weltmeisterin.